Yet it’s unclear whether a Congress that has consistently stood idly by during Trump’s previous — and ongoing — trade wars will act to prevent any new tariffs from taking effect.
Since Trump came into office, GOP lawmakers have privately and publicly urged the President to stand down on imposing tariffs on America’s closest trading partners, but have never acted to prevent it. After Trump lifted steel and aluminum tariffs on Canada and Mexico earlier this month, members of Congress breathed a sigh of relief, hopeful he would prioritize ratification of his renegotiated North American Free Trade Agreement and avoid any new trade wars amid heightened tensions with China.
Those hopes were dashed Thursday, when Trump announced potential tariffs on Mexico, even as the Mexican legislature was preparing to soon consider the US-Mexico-Canada trade agreement.
“I support nearly every one of President Trump’s immigration policies, but this is not one of them,” Senate Finance Committee Chairman Chuck Grassley of Iowa said in a statement Thursday.
Some Republicans on Capitol Hill are still holding out hope Trump could reverse course. If he doesn’t, lawmakers may consider legislative options to block the new tariffs. Those conversations will likely take place next week, after Congress returns from a week-long recess.
But they could also do what they’ve done all along: cross their fingers and hope for the best.
Republican Sens. Joni Ernst, Rob Portman, John Cornyn, Martha McSally and others also pushed back on the idea, arguing it would be painful for their states and disruptive for the North American economy.
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, for his part, carefully avoided criticizing Trump and tiptoed around the tariff question.
“There is a serious humanitarian crisis at our southern border, and it is past time for my Democratic colleagues to finally get serious about meaningful action,” he wrote in a statement. “As our third biggest trading partner, a healthy and vibrant economic relationship with Mexico is a vital source of our joint prosperity. Any proposal that impacts this relationship deserves serious examination and I look forward to discussing this plan in greater detail with my colleagues and the administration.”
White House press secretary Sarah Sanders also rejected any notion that Republicans should feel blindsided by the White House’s move.
“The President didn’t blindside his own party. If Republicans weren’t aware, then they haven’t been paying attention,” Sanders said on Friday. “Anybody in this country or frankly in the world that says that there surprised by this has been living under a rock and not paying attention. The President’s been crystal clear that we have to take action, we have to step up, we have to do more, and we have to secure our borders.”
What can Congress do?
Vocal critics of Trump’s use of tariffs say Congress should reclaim trade powers from the executive branch.
“The President’s use of tax hikes on Americans as a tool to affect change in Mexican policy is misguided,” Pennsylvania Sen. Pat Toomey said in a statement. “It is past time for Congress to step up and reassert its Constitutional responsibility on tariffs.”
Toomey has introduced a bill to require congressional approval for a different authority, Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act, which Trump has used to impose tariffs on national security grounds in the past. Grassley has been working on a compromise plan to curb the same power. Because Trump is using a separate tool to pursue the tariffs on Mexican goods, lawmakers may consider rewriting or expanding those bills in order to address the looming threat.
Lawmakers could also end the national emergency declaration underpinning the tariffs with a joint resolution of disapproval, as they attempted earlier this year when Trump used national emergency powers to seize funding for border security. That effort failed because Congress failed to override Trump’s veto.
Congress could also sit back and wait for the courts to weigh in: The White House is expected to face challenges from American business groups.
The US Chamber of Commerce said Friday it was exploring legal options to stymie the threat. During a call with reporters, Neil Bradley, executive vice president and chief policy officer at the Chamber, slammed the decision and said the group was doing its due diligence.
“Imposing these tariffs will make all the things we need to do much harder while weakening our economy at the same time,” he said.
CNN’s Kaitlan Collins and Kevin Liptak contributed to this report.